Monday, 18 March 2019

'Twelve is the Public Number'

Here's a cartoon strip by Tom Gauld, published in the Guardian Review last September

Every Wake reader will get a jolt of recognition on seeing these twelve critics, passing judgement, all using words ending in 'ation'. For these are characters in Finnegans Wake.
They are the twelve customers in H.C.Earwicker's pub, where there is 'sawdust strown in expectoration and for ratification by specification of your information.' 245.31.

You can always spot the twelve by these pompous 'ation' words. They are 'the porters of the passions in virtue of retroratiocination, and, contributting their conflingent controversies of differentiation, unify their voxes in a vote of vaticination, who crunch the crusts of comfort due to depredation, drain the mead for misery to incur intoxication, condone every evil by practical justification and condam any good to its own gratification.' 142.21

We first meet them in the opening pages where they are the mourners at Tim Finnegan's wake:

'all the hoolivans of the nation, prostrated in their consternation and their duodisimally profusive plethora of ululation....To the continuation of that celebration until Hanandhunigan’s extermination!' 6.14

The twelve, 'a bundle of a dozen of representative locomotive civics' (221.04) represent public opinion in Finnegans Wake. Joyce told Padraic Colum,'Twelve is the public number. Twelve hours of the day, twelve men on a jury.'

He also talked about number with Adolf Hoffmeister:

'Number is an enigma that God deciphers. Along with Beckett, a small red-haired Irishman and my great friend, I have discovered the important of numbers in life and history. Dante was obsessed by the number three. He divided his poem into three parts, each with thirty-three cantos, written in terza rima. And why always the arrangement of four – four legs of a table, four legs of a horse, four seasons of the year, four provinces of Ireland? Why are there twelve tables of the law, twelve apostles, twelve months, and twelve Napoeon's marshals?'

Adolf Hoffmeister, 'Portrait of Joyce', in Portraits of the Artist in Exile (ed Potts) p129

This is a medieval way of looking at numbers, and Joyce told Arthur Power, 'I feel that if I had lived in the fourteenth or fifteenth century I should have been much more appreciated.'

Twelve apostles

Here are the twelve named as apostles:

'Matey, Teddy, Simon, Jorn, Pedher, Andy, Barty, Philly, Jamesy Mor and Tom, Matt and Jakes Mac Carty'

That's Matthias, Thaddaeus, Simon the Canaanite, John, Simon Peter, Andrew, Bartholomew, Philip, James the son of Zebedee, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus.

One long passage has the twelve as jurymen, trying HCE and finding him guilty every night of his sin in the park:

'each and every juridical sessions night, whenas goodmen twelve and true at fox and geese in their numbered habitations tried old wireless over boord in their juremembers, whereas by reverendum they found him guilty of their and those imputations of fornicolopulation with two of his albowcrural correlations...' 557.13

They are also the months of the year:

'those component partners of our societate, the doorboy, the cleaner, the sojer, the crook, the squeezer, the lounger, the curman, the tourabout, the mussroomsniffer, the bleakabluetramp, the funpowtherplother, the christymansboxer' 142.08

Joyce originally listed the months as 'doorman, boiler, warrior, priser, courter, lounger, kenneler, tourist, harvester, blackablue tramp, funpowther plotter, chrystyman's box'. See if you can work out why he chose these names, and then find the explanations in fweet here.

The Ku Klux Klan had their own calendar, whose months are listed here:

'no more the tolvmaans, bloody gloomy hideous fearful furious alarming terrible horrible mournful sorrowful frightful appalling' 549.10

('horrible', not in the published text, was restored in the Corrected Text)

Here are the twelve signs of the Zodiac:

'Butting, charging, bracing, backing, springing, shrinking, swaying, darting, shooting, bucking and sprinkling their dossies sodouscheock with the twinx of their taylz.' 524.22

(butting ram, charging bull, brace of twins, backing crab, springing lion, shrinking virgin, swaying scales, darting scorpion, shooting archer, bucking goat, sprinkling water-carrier, fishes' tails) 


As in Tom Gauld's strip, the twelve are also critics. When Joyce set about creating a readership for his book, he picked twelve critics to do it for him – Samuel Beckett, Marcel Brion, Frank Budgen, Stuart Gilbert, Eugene Jolas, Victor Llona, Robert McAlmon, Thomas McGreevy, Elliot Paul, John Rodker, Robert Sage and William Carlos Williams. Their essays were collected in a 1929 book he called Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress.

Joyce called the twelve critics his marshals (he wrote to Valery Larbaud that he had stood behind 'those twelve marshals more or less directing them.')

The cover has Joyce's sigla for the twelve, a clock face or a wheel with twelve spokes.

Having made the twelve real people, Joyce put them back into Finnegans Wake as characters:

'Imagine the twelve deaferended dumbbawls of the whowl abovebeugled to be the contonuation through regeneration of the urutteration of the word in pregross.' 284.18

'His producers are they not his consumers? Your exagmination round his factification for incamination of a warping process.' 497.02

I briefly became one of the twelve myself in 2013, when I went to a Wake reading session at Sweny the Chemist's, the great Joycean shrine in Dublin. I was delighted to discover that there were twelve of us, and we read the book sitting in a circle

The twelve reading Shem the Penman in Sweny's
Three other women did join us after the reading had started, but after five minutes listening to us reading Finnegans Wake, they realised they'd made a mistake and left. Yes, the Shade of Joyce compelled them to go, preserving the magic Twelve!


The twelve are sometimes called Doyles and sometimes Sullivans. They are 'doyles when they deliberate but sullivans when they are swordsed.' 142.26

The two names show the good and bad sides of public opinion. When the twelve are a deliberating jury, they are Doyles – probably from the Irish parliament, the Dail.

‘The jury (a sour dozen of stout fellows all of whom were curiously named after doyles)' 574.30

They are also Doyles when they are in harmony, as a choir:

‘a choir of the O’Daley O’Doyles doublesixing the chorus’ 48.13

When they turn into a hostile baying armed (‘swordsed’) mob, they become Sullivans. Their leader is 'Sully the Thug' (212.03), and as a mob they sully the reputation of HCE.
'Sulla, an orthodox savage (and leader of a band of twelve mercenaries, the Sullivani).’

'Sully, a barracker associated with tinkers, the blackhand, Shovellyvans, wreuter of annoyimgmost letters and skirriless ballets...'495.01

That's why they're called 'hoolivans of the nation' at the wake – hooligans mixed with Sullivans. 


'Affected Mob Follows in Religious Sullivence' 602.25

There really was a Sullivan gang. This was the group of Catholic Irish politicians from Bantry in West Cork who, in alliance with the priests, destroyed Charles Stewart Parnell after the O'Shea divorce scandal. 

 There's a plaque to them in Bantry.  

Their supporters called them the Bantry band, but Parnellites, like Joyce's father, knew them as  'the Bantry gang' or 'the Sullivan gang'.

From the Durrus History website

The Sullivan name came from the brother MPs, Timothy Daniel Sullivan (above right), composer of 'God Save Ireland',  and Alexander Martin Sullivan, proprieter of The Nation (hence 'hoolivans of the nation' perhaps). Their leader was Tim Healy (above left), T.D.Sullivan's nephew and son-in-law. It was Healy who denounced Parnell in the dramatic split in Committee Room 16 on 6 December 1890, when he said that the alliance with the Liberals had ended 'in the stench of the divorce court.' 
Another key figure in the gang was William Martin Murphy, the Irish press baron. In Ulysses, the Citizen calls him 'Martin Murphy that Bantry jobber.'  During the divorce scandal, Murphy founded the National Press, edited by Healy, as a means of destroying Parnell.  

Martin Murphy that Bantry jobber

Healy's vicious attacks on Parnell inspired the nine-year old Joyce to write a poem, 'Et tu Healy', which John Stanislaus Joyce had printed - even sending a copy to the Pope!  

'It... was a diatribe against the supposed traitor, Tim Healy, who had ratted at the bidding of the Catholic bishops and become a virulent enemy of Parnell, and so the piece was an echo of those political rancours that formed the theme of my father's nightly half-drunken rantings to the accompaniment of vigorous table-thumping. I think it was in verse because of the rhythm of bits of it that I remember. One line is a pentameter. At the end of the piece the dead Chief is likened to an eagle, looking down on the grovelling mass of Irish politicians from

His quaint-perched aerie on the crags of Time
Where the rude din of this . . . century
Can trouble him no more.

Stanislaus Joyce, My Brother's Keeper

In A Portrait, the Parnellites Mr Casey and Simon Dedalus get into a ferocious argument with the devout Dante Riordan about the 'the priests' pawns':

'—Let him remember...the language with which the priests and the priests’ pawns broke Parnell’s heart and hounded him into his grave. Let him remember that too when he grows up.
—Sons of bitches! cried Mr Dedalus. When he was down they turned on him to betray him and rend him like rats in a sewer. Lowlived dogs! And they look it! By Christ, they look it!
—They behaved rightly, cried Dante. They obeyed their bishops and their priests. Honour to them!'

Later in the book, Stephen remembers the argument: 'His father’s gibes at the Bantry gang leaped out of his memory.'

Joyce, who hero-worshipped Parnell, wrote of his fall:

'Of the eighty three deputies, only eight remained faithful to him. The high and low clergy entered the lists to finish him off. The Irish press emptied on him and the woman he loved the vials of their envy. The citizens of Castlecomer threw quicklime in his eyes. He went from county to county, from city to city, 'like a hunted deer', a spectral figure with the signs of death on his forehead. Within a year he died of a broken heart at the age of 45.... In his final desperate appeal to his countrymen, he begged them not to throw him as a sop to the English wolves howling around them. It redounds to their honour that they did not fail this appeal. They did not throw him to the English wolves; they tore him to pieces themselves.'

'The Shade of Parnell', 1912

During the Wake's seance chapter, we hear that desperate cry of Parnell:

'Do not flingamejig to the twolves!' 479.14

By adding a 't' to wolves, Joyce has made Parnell beg them not to throw him to the twelve.

Parnell, eye bandaged after the lime attack, faces down the baying mob

One of the messages of Finnegans Wake is that history repeats itself. I keep seeing parallels between Parnell's story and today's Brexit crisis. The Home Rulers also wanted to 'take back control' from a foreign political institution. Bitterly divided, the Parnellites and Anti-Parnellites used their newspapers to accuse each other, in increasingly vitriolic terms, of treason. The public, whipped up by the press and the priests, turned to violence. In Castlecomer, Parnell had quicklime flung in his eye. Tim Healy had the windows of his Dublin house smashed and was attacked twice, in Dublin and in Cork. Like Parnell, he suffered an eye injury.

'A Parnellite came up to (Healy) in his hotel in Cork, accused him of betraying his country, and punched him repeatedly in the face, smashing his glasses, splinters from which went into his eye.'  Robert Kee, The Laurel and the Ivy

British MPs are now being advised to travel in groups to avoid being attacked.

It feels like the swordsed Sullivans are once more on the march. 



During the O'Shea divorce proceedings, it was revealed that Parnell used the name Fox when carrying on his affair. This led the Anti-Parnellite Charles Tanner to suggest in a Kilkenny speech that it was 'the duty of every Irishman to hunt Mr Fox with a cry of Tally-ho!'.  

So, in the Wake, HCE becomes a fox hunted by a pack of dogs:

'Gundogs of all breeds were beagling with renounced urbiandorbic bugles, hot to run him, given law, on a scent breasthigh, keen for the worry. View!'

Parnell's supporters, like W.B.Yeats, preferred to see him as a hunted stag, which is more noble than its pursuers.

'During the quarrel over Parnell's grave, a quotation from Goethe ran through the papers, describing our Irish jealousy. 'The Irish seem to me like a pack of hounds, always dragging down some noble stag.''

W.B.Yeats, Autobiography, 1958, p211

Yeats used the image in two poems: 'But popular rage, Hysterica passio dragged this quarry down' ('Parnell's Funeral'), 'Your enemy, an old foul mouth, had set The pack upon him' ('To a Shade').  The 'foul mouth' was Tim Healy.

'Stag Hunt' by Pauwel de Vos and Jan Wildens, 1633

The same image is in the poem Joyce gave to his Parnellite journalist, Joe Hynes:

'He is dead. Our Uncrowned King is dead.
O, Erin, mourn with grief and woe
For he lies dead whom the fell gang
Of modern hypocrites laid low.
He lies slain by the coward hounds
He raised to glory from the mire...'

'Ivy Day in the Committee Room.'

There's a stag hunt in Finnegans Wake, based on Ireland's famous Ward Union Stag hunt:

'the Wald Unicorns Master, Bugley Captain, from the Naul, drawls up by the door with the Honourable Whilp and the Reverend Poynter and the two Lady Pagets of Tallyhaugh, Ballyhuntus, in their riddletight raiding hats for to lift a hereshealth to their robost, the Stag, evers the Carlton hart.' 622.25

The initials in the last four words tell us that the stag is HCE. 

Joyce, who strongly identified with Parnell, imagined himself as a defiant stag:

‘I stand the self-doomed, unafraid,
Unfellowed, friendless and alone,
Indifferent as the herring-bone,
Firm as the mountain ridges where
I flash my antlers on the air.’

'The Holy Office'

On his birthday, Joyce liked to wear a hunting waistcoat decorated with stags and hounds –a family heirloom, given to him by his father in 1912. You can see it today in the James Joyce Tower museum in Dublin.

I wonder if Tom Gauld has read Finnegans Wake. Joyce has made another appearance in his cartoon strip.  But it would be nice if the appearance of the twelve in his cartoon is another of those many coincidences that cluster around the Wake.

Thursday, 24 January 2019

The Frothy Freshener: James Joyce's Guinness Slogan

'When it came to writing slogans James Joyce proved himself no slouch.
He suggested replacing ‘Guinness is Good for You’ with ‘Guinness –The Free, The Flow, the Frothy Freshener!’

That's a claim made on a wonderful advert for Guinness printed in the Irish Times on Bloomsday in 1982,  Joyce's centenary.  I was one of hundreds of Joyceans in Dublin for the celebration, and I bought a copy of the paper.

1982 was the year that Dublin, at long last, embraced James Joyce. The Irish Times Bloomsday editorial said:

'When Joyce came to publish his books, the censorious Ireland of the 1920s and 30s looked away disappprovingly, insofar as it paid any attention at all. However amends are now being made, as is right. Joyce by his writings paid great honour to the city of his birth, and the compliment should be returned.'

One of the Dublin institutions making amends was the Guinness brewery. They put on a big Joyce exhibition, 'Wine of the Country', which took a 'James's gape at Guinness and Dublin'. The exhibition was named after a nickname for stout in the Cyclops episode of Ulysses. We're in Barney Kiernan's pub, where Joe Hynes is buying a round:

-- Give it a name, citizen, says Joe. 
-- Wine of the country, says he. 
– What's yours? says Joe.
-- Ditto MacAnaspey, says I...
-- Three pints, Terry, says Joe

Here's the narrator's first taste of the lovely pint:

-- Health, Joe, says I. And all down the form.
Ah! Owl! Don't be talking! I was blue mouldy for the want of that pint. Declare to God I could hear it hit the pit of my stomach with a click.

The Guinness advert has another quotation from the same episode. Terry the barman is bringing a 'pony' (a half pint) to Little Alf Bergan.

-- Hurry up, Terry boy, says Alf. 
Terence O'Ryan heard him and straightway brought him a crystal cup full of the foaming ebon ale which the noble twin brothers Bungiveagh and Bungardilaun brew ever in their divine alevats, cunning as the sons of deathless Leda. For they garner the succulent berries of the hop and mass and sift and bruise and brew them and they mix therewith sour juices and bring the must to the sacred fire and cease not night or day from their toil, those cunning brothers, lords of the vat.

Bungiveagh and Bungardilaun are Edward Guinness, Lord Iveagh, who ran the brewery, and his older brother Arthur Guinness, Lord Ardilaun.
The exhibition, which I visited on Bloomsday, recreated a Dublin pub bar of Joyce's day (using bits of counters rescued from defunct pubs, like Barney Kiernan's) and an iron fireplace where the canvassers in 'Ivy Day in the Committee Room' set their bottles of stout, waiting for them to open with a 'Pok!' (Has anyone ever managed that trick?). There was also a fine performance of Joyce readings by the Dublin actor Dermot Lynskey.



In 2011, Catherine Gubernatis Dannen investigated the background to Joyce's Guinness slogan in the brewery's archives. Here's her conclusion:

'After examining materials in the Guinness archive and talking with the archivist, I have concluded that there is no basis for Guinness's claim that Joyce wrote his own advertising slogan about Guinness stout....In a year of stagnant sales and bad public relations, Guinness took advantage of the publicity generated by Joyce's centenary to advertise its product to foreign customers and to repair its relationship with the public.'

Catherine Gubernatis Danne, 'The Facts and Fiction Behind "the Free, the Flow, the Frothy Freshener": The Guinness Company and the Story of Joyce's Lost Ad', JJQ, Vol. 48, No. 4, Joyce's Lives (Summer 2011), pp. 712

In fact, the proof that Joyce wrote this slogan is in Finnegans Wake. The 'frothy freshener' appears in the 'Haveth Childers Everwhere' episode, published as a book by Babou and Kahane in 1930 - just a year after the first 'Guinness is Good For You' ad came out.

In this speech of self-justification, HCE lists his great achievements as a city builder, all done out of love for his river-wife Anna Livia Plurabelle. One achievement is brewing Dublin stout:

'I brewed for my alpine plurabelle, wigwarming wench, (speakeasy!) my granvilled brandold Dublin lindub, the free, the froh, the frothy freshener, puss, puss, pussyfoot, to split the spleen of her maw'  553.25

Joyce wrote 'froh', which is German for merry, rather than the 'flow' in the Guinness version. HCE says 'free, froh...frothy' because he has a guilty stammer.

Dublin is paired with lindub because the Irish for stout is 'leann dubh' meaning 'black ale' (spelled 'lionn dubh' in the 1920s). Here's the entry from Dineen's 1927 dictionary (thanks to Eric Rosenbloom):

{genitive} LEANNA, {plural} {idem} -NTA, LEANNTAƍ and LEANNANNA {masculine} and {feminine}, liquid, liquor, any lisueous substance;
drink, ale, strong beer, wine (Wind,);
a humour of the body, lymph, phlegm, bile, choler;
LIONN DUBH, porter, stout, {also, alias} black humour, melancholy (LIONNDUBH, {genitive} -UIBH, {plural} {idem}, and LEANNTA DUBHA)

The name Dublin itself comes from dubh linn 'black pool'. This was where the Poddle stream met the River Liffey to form a pool. So Dublin and Guinness Porter are related linguistically as well as geographically! 

When Joyce was getting 'Haveth Childers Everywhere' ready for publication, he was helped by his old University College friend Padraic Colum, who remembers the time in Our Friend James Joyce:

 'What did my contribution to this production amount to? I typed pages. From time to time I was asked to suggest a word that would be more obscure than the word already there. Joyce would consider my offer, his eyes, their pupils enlarged behind glasses, expectant, his face intent, his figure upstanding. ' I can't use it,' was what he would say five times out of six...' 

Mary and Padraic Colum, Our Friend James Joyce, 1958 p.158

Joyce thanked Colum by putting him in the episode:

   — The S. S. Paudraic's in the harbour.  (550.07)

Colum's book was probably the source for the 1982 Guinnesss ad slogan story:

'He actually believed that, on one level anyway, his later work had a public appeal. ''My brandold Dublin lindub, the free, the froh, the frothy freshener' - that really is a good slogan for the Dublin brew, Guinness', and Joyce was actually disappointed that Guinness did not use it instead of the commonplace 'Guinness is good for you.' But maybe they will appropriate it some time – 'the free, the froh, the frothy freshener.'  'Lindub', Dublin scrambled, is the Irish for black ale.' 

Mary and Padraic Colum, Our Friend James Joyce, 1958, p.156

'Maybe they will appropriate it sometime' 

They did, Padraic, they did!
Joyce's disappointment that Guinness didn't use his slogan can only mean that he suggested it to them, or that he expected them to discover it for themselves when Haveth Childers Everywhere was published. Either way, Guinness didn't invent the story as a publicity stunt.


It's easy to see why Joyce would have wanted to write an advert for Guinness. He was always fascinated by advertising, and he saw how it was shaping modern life. Joyce made his hero Leopold Bloom an advertising canvasser, a man who contemplates 'the infinite possibilities hitherto unexploited of the modern art of advertisement' with its 'magnetising efficacy to arrest involuntary attention, to interest, to convince, to decide.' (Ithaca)

Here's the most famous ad in Ulysses, from a recreation of the Evening Telegraph published by Split Pea Press in 1990. The slogan was invented by Joyce.

While writing the Wake, Joyce read the Irish and British papers daily, taking notes for his book. He was often more interested in the ads than the news stories. The very first notebook for the Wake includes newspaper ads for Bird’s Egg Substitute cake-meal (‘a tin with a purpose’), for Hustler soap and for the Colgate Shaving Stick (See Robbert-Jan Henkes great article on the Wake's origins here).

So Joyce would have been interested when Guinness launched their first ever advertising campaign in 1929, with the slogan 'Guinness is Good for You'. He might even have taken it as a challenge.

Soon after, John Gilroy's colour posters appeared.


This Guinness slogan makes three appearances in Finnegans Wake:

'Ghinees hies good fir yew.' 16.31 
('for you' in the published text is a misprint)
'Guinness’s, may I remind, were just agulp for you' 190.07
'We have highest gratifications in announcing to pewtewr publikumst of pratician pratyusers, genghis is ghoon for you.'  593.17

In 1936, John Gilroy launched a new campaign, inspired by watching a sea lion performing balancing tricks at a circus. The new slogan was 'My goodness, MY GUINNESS'

Joyce put that into the Wake too.

'O my goodmiss! O my greatmess!' 237.07
'another guidness, my good, to see' 345.22



Here's a perfect pint of Guinness, from John Kavanagh's ('the Gravediggers') by Glasnevin cemetery. It has a creamy rather than a frothy head.

This thick creamy head was created in 1959, when Guinness brewer Michael Ash had the revolutionary idea of adding nitrogen to the draught beer. Nitrogen's tiny bubbles create a head so dense that bartenders can now draw a shamrock on top. After 1959, Guinness ads described the keg version as 'creamy'.

When Joyce wrote his slogan, Guinness had to be poured from two barrels, a method still used in the 1970s to pour plain porter, a weaker version of the stout (celebrated by Flann O'Brien's 'a pint of plain is your only man'). Here's a film showing the last pints of plain poured in Befast, in 1973. They have frothy rather than thick creamy heads.

This froth could also be called foam, as in 'a crystal cup full of the foaming ebon ale' quoted above. Twice in the Wake, Joyce calls Dublin beer  'foamous'.

'Danu U’Dunnell’s foamous olde Dobbelin ayle.' 7.12
'Ser Artur Ghinis. Foamous homely brew, bebattled by bottle, gageure de guegerre.' 272.26

I learn from the James Joyce Digital Archive of Wake drafts that Joyce originally wrote 'the foamy freshener' before choosing the livelier 'frothy'. Maybe he should have thought of 'the foamous freshener'?

Anyway, Joyce was right to call Guinness 'frothy', and as for 'freshener', here's a 1937 Guinness poster.

Did someone remember Joyce's suggestion?

I think that Joyce's 'frothy freshener' was a very effective slogan. Since I started looking into this subject a couple of weeks ago, I've drunk nothing but Guinness; and every time I've ordered a pint, I've remembered the words 'the free, the froh, the frothy freshener'.


A pint in Davy Byrne's 13 June 2015